Ломбард Червонец

Gold - What is it?


     “Gold” is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *gʰel- ("yellow/green").

     The symbol Au is from the Latin: aurum, according to some sources meaning "shining dawn", from Sabine ausum "glowing dawn" although according to definitions within Latin dictionaries the meaning of the word aurum is the same as today's use of gold in reference to the metal. The disagreement between definitions is possibly due to the accumulation of evidence from archaeology of the original anciency of the metal in civilization; in reference to "the dawn of civilization", and in this respect has become the adopted modern meaning, disassociated from the original etymological Latin.


     Pure gold is a soft yellow metal. Impurities of other metals, particularly copper, give a reddish tint to certain articles of gold, such as coins. In thin films, the gold shines green. Gold has an extremely high thermal conductivity and low electrical resistance.

     Gold is a very heavy metal: a ball of pure gold 46 mm in diameter has a mass of 1 kg. Liter bottle filled with golden sand, weighs about 16 kg. Heaviness of gold is a plus for its extraction. The simplest technological processes, such as, for example, flushing on sluices, can provide a very high degree of recovery of gold from rock flushed.
Gold is very malleable and ductile. A piece of gold weighing one gram can be stretched into a wire with length of three kilometers, or make a gold foil 500 times thinner than a human hair (0.0001 mm). Through such sheet of foil a ray of light shine with greenish color. The softness of pure gold is so great that it can be scratched with a fingernail. Therefore, gold is always alloyed with copper or silver in jewelry. The composition of such alloys is expressed in rate, which indicates the number of weight parts of gold per 1000 parts of alloy (in Russian practice). Rate of chemically pure gold corresponds to 999.9 rate - it is also called "bank" gold because gold bullions are made of such gold.


 How to care for jewelry

     To avoid the appearance of dark spots on jewelry from contact with moist skin, when removing knick-knackery you must immediately wipe them with dry flannel. When performing various household works and in contact with chemicals, it is recommended to remove rings, bracelets and other jewelry, which protects them from damage and contamination. Especially aureate products should be treated carefully.

     It is also recommended to take off jewelry when using cosmetics, prepared on the basis of mercury salt and sulphur (mercury forms an amalgam with the gold, covering the product with white spots, and sulfur easily reacts with gold and silver and forms black sulfur compounds). Iodine leaves dark spots on gold and silver products. Jewelry should be stored in boxes in a dry place. Amethysts, colored topaz (except for citrine), pearls and turquoise, which under the influence of solar ultraviolet rays lose color intensity, must be stored very carefully.


Care for silver items

     The shine of strongly tarnished silver items can be recovered if primarily rinse them in any detergent, and then by a solution of sodium hypophosphite (20g per 100g of water) and warm water. Silver and silver-plated items can be refreshed by washing them in warm water with baking soda (50 g per 1 liter of water) or in warm soapy water with ammonia (1 tbsp. per 1 liter of water). Then the products shall be rinsed in clean water and wiped dry with a soft towel.

     Also silver jewelry can be cleaned with stone glass (except for glass foil). Silver jewelry with enamel shall be cleaned by tooth powder with a few drops of ammonia.


Care for gold items

     When doing a physical work or homework you should take the rings off to avoid scratching the surface of metal and stone. Spots from contact of gold products with iodine are easy to remove by dropping the product into the hypo solution used in photography (1 tbsp. per glass of water) for 15-20 minutes, and then the product must be rinsed in clean water and wiped dry by flannel.

     Strongly tarnished surface of aureate product can be refreshed by wiping it by flannel soaked with a mixture of a tablespoon of “Belizna” liquid solution and egg white. In order to avoid dark spots on gold rings, earrings, bracelets, watches from contact with moist skin after taking them off wipe them with a chamois or flannel. Dirt from the aureate surface is removed with a cotton plug moistened with turpentine or ethyl alcohol.

     Do not expose the gold jewelry to cosmetics, prepared on the basis of mercury. Mercury damages the gold and changes its color.


Care for items made of pearl, nacre, coral, amber, jet, and bone

     Pearl, nacre, coral, amber, jet, and bone require special care when wearing them, as organic materials of natural origin are mainly soft, porous, fragile. When washing, do not use acidic, alcaline and ammoniac additives. Any cleaning powders are contraindicated in clearing such products. Normal tooth powder for amber is maximum applicable. Warm water and soft cloth or brush perfectly cleans jewelry from contamination.

     Cosmetics (creams, lotions, etc.), especially containing mercury and sulfur in its composition, in contact may have a negative chemical reaction and adversely affect the appearance of jewelry. It is necessary to avoid mechanical shocks (especially for pearls and nacre). Pearls, turquoise, malachite, coral and amber do not tolerate high humidity. When worn, they can fade and turn pale. A high dryness and air humidity are contraindicated for pearl. It is also very sensitive to acids, skin perspiration, cosmetics, hair spray (especially in the form of aerosols). Fatty coat on pearls will disappear if wash it in soapy water, rinse and dry. Amber ignites from fire, electrifies by friction, as well as jet.




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